NSArray,NSSet,NSDictionary用法总结

时间:2014-01-14 19:27:05   收藏:0   阅读:623

用法总结:NSArray,NSSet,NSDictionary

iphone_dev_note 2011-05-07 14:31:08 阅读67 评论0

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三种集合类来收集cocoa对象(NSObject对象):
NSArray 用于对象有序集合(相当于是数组)
NSSet 用于对象无序集合
NSDictionary用于键值映射
以上三种集合类是不可变的(一旦初始化后,就不能改变)

以下是对应的三种可变集合类(这三种可变集合类是对应上面三种集合类的子类)
NSMutableArray
NSMutableSet
NSMutableDictionary

注:这些集合类只能收集cocoa对象(NSOjbect对象),如果想保存一些原始的C数据(例如,int, float, double, BOOL等),则需要将这些原始的C数据封装成NSNumber类型的,NSNumber对象是cocoa对象,可以被保存在集合类中。

NSArray
Ordered collection of objects. Immutable. You cannot add or remove objects to it once it’s created.
Important methods:
+ (id)arrayWithObjects:(id)firstObject, ...;     // nil terminated 
- (int)count;
- (id)objectAtIndex:(int)index;                     //  NSString *s1=[[myarray objectAtIndex: 0];
- (void)makeObjectsPerformSelector:(SEL)aSelector;
- (NSArray *)sortedArrayUsingSelector:(SEL)aSelector;
- (id)lastObject; // returns nil if there are no objects in the array (convenient)
注:
类方法arrayWithObjects 可以创建an autoreleased NSArray of the items.例如
@implementation MyObject
- (NSArray *)coolCats {
return [NSArray arrayWithObjects:@“Steve”, @“Ankush”, @“Sean”, nil];
}
@end
Other convenient create with methods (all return autoreleased objects):
[NSString stringWithFormat:@“Meaning of %@ is %d”, @“life”, 42];
[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:ankush, @“TA”, janestudent, @“Student”, nil];
[NSArray arrayWithContentsOfFile:(NSString *)path];
-----创建数组 -----
    //NSArray *array = [[NSArray alloc] initWithObjects:
    @"One",@"Two",@"Three",@"Four",nil];

    self.dataArray = array;
    [array release];

    //- (unsigned) Count;数组所包含对象个数;
    NSLog(@"self.dataArray cound:%d",[self.dataArray count]);

    //- (id) objectAtIndex: (unsigned int) index;获取指定索引处的对象;
    NSLog(@"self.dataArray cound 2:%@",[self.dataArray objectAtIndex:2]);

------ 从一个数组拷贝数据到另一数组(可变数级) -------   

    //arrayWithArray:
    //NSArray *array1 = [[NSArray alloc] init];
    NSMutableArray *MutableArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *array = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:
                      @"a",@"b",@"c",nil];
    NSLog(@"array:%@",array);
    MutableArray = [NSMutableArray arrayWithArray:array];
    NSLog(@"MutableArray:%@",MutableArray);

    array1 = [NSArray arrayWithArray:array];
    NSLog(@"array1:%@",array1);

    //Copy

    //id obj;
    NSMutableArray *newArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *oldArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:
                         @"a",@"b",@"c",@"d",@"e",@"f",@"g",@"h",nil];

    NSLog(@"oldArray:%@",oldArray);
    for(int i = 0; i < [oldArray count]; i++)
    {        
        obj = [[oldArray objectAtIndex:i] copy];
        [newArray addObject: obj];
    }
    //     
    NSLog(@"newArray:%@", newArray);
    [newArray release];

//快速枚举
    //NSMutableArray *newArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *oldArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:
                         @"a",@"b",@"c",@"d",@"e",@"f",@"g",@"h",nil];   
    NSLog(@"oldArray:%@",oldArray);

    for(id obj in oldArray)
    {
        [newArray addObject: obj];
    }
    //     
    NSLog(@"newArray:%@", newArray);
    [newArray release];   

    //Deep copy

    //NSMutableArray *newArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *oldArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:
                         @"a",@"b",@"c",@"d",@"e",@"f",@"g",@"h",nil];   
    NSLog(@"oldArray:%@",oldArray);   
    newArray = (NSMutableArray*)CFPropertyListCreateDeepCopy(kCFAllocatorDefault, (CFPropertyListRef)oldArray, kCFPropertyListMutableContainers);
    NSLog(@"newArray:%@", newArray);
    [newArray release];   

    //Copy and sort

    //NSMutableArray *newArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *oldArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:

NSMutableArray
Mutable version of NSArray.
- (void)addObject:(id)anObject;
- (void)insertObject:(id)anObject atIndex:(int)index;
- (void)removeObjectAtIndex:(int)index;
- (void)removeAllObjects;

-----给数组分配容量-----
    //NSArray *array;
    array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithCapacity:20];

-----在数组末尾添加对象-----
    //- (void) addObject: (id) anObject;
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:@"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    [array addObject:@"Four"];
    NSLog(@"array:%@",array);

-----删除数组中指定索引处对象-----   
    //-(void) removeObjectAtIndex: (unsigned) index;   
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:@"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    [array removeObjectAtIndex:1];
    NSLog(@"array:%@",array);

 ----- 数组枚举-----  
//1- (NSEnumerator *)objectEnumerator;  //从前向后
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:@"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    NSEnumerator *enumerator;
    enumerator = [array objectEnumerator];

    id thingie;
    while (thingie = [enumerator nextObject]) {
        NSLog(@"thingie:%@",thingie);
    }
//2- (NSEnumerator *)reverseObjectEnumerator;  //从后向前
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:
    @"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    NSEnumerator *enumerator;
    enumerator = [array reverseObjectEnumerator];

    id object;
    while (object = [enumerator nextObject]) {
        NSLog(@"object:%@",object);
    }
//3、快速枚举
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:
    @"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    for(NSString *string in array)
    {
        NSLog(@"string:%@",string);
    }

----- NSValue(对任何对象进行包装)-----
//NSRect放入NSArray
    NSMutableArray *array = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSValue *value;
    CGRect rect = CGRectMake(0, 0, 320, 480);   
    value = [NSValue valueWithBytes:&rect objCType:@encode(CGRect)];
    [array addObject:value];
    NSLog(@"array:%@",array);
//Array 提取
    value = [array objectAtIndex:0];
    [value getValue:&rect];
    NSLog(@"value:%@",value);

----使用NSMutableArray要防止内存泄露------
NSObject* p1 = [[NSObject alloc] init];
NSObject* p2 = [[NSObject alloc] init];
NSMutableArray* objectsArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];

[objectsArray addObject:p1];
NSLog(@"p1 count:%d", [p1 retainCount]);//输出 2,也就是执行追加对象后,对象的计数器也被加1
//[p1 release];
//NSLog(@"p1 count:%d", [p1 retainCount]);

//同样做数组替换时
[objectsArray replaceObjectAtIndex:0 withObject:p2];
NSLog(@"p2 count:%d", [p2 retainCount]);//输出 2,同样也是2
NSLog(@"p1 count:%d", [p1 retainCount]);//输出 1,对象p1仍然存在
//[p2 release];
//NSLog(@"p2 count:%d", [p2 retainCount]);

//执行清空数组
[objectsArray removeAllObjects];
NSLog(@"p2 count:%d", [p2 retainCount]);//输出 1,对象p2仍然存在
//[p2 release];

由此可知,每次执行上面的数组操作后,要执行对象release,如上面注释中的语句,才能保证内存不泄露。


NSSet
Unordered collection of objects.
Immutable. You cannot add or remove objects to it once it’s created.
Important methods:
+ setWithObjects:(id)firstObj, ...;  // nil terminated

- (int)count;

- (BOOL)containsObject:(id)anObject;

- (id)anyObject;

- (void)makeObjectsPerformSelector:(SEL)aSelector;

- (id)member:(id)anObject; // uses isEqual: and returns a matching object (if any)

 

NSMutableSet

Mutable version of NSSet.

+ (NSMutableSet *)set;

- (void)addObject:(id)anObject;

- (void)removeObject:(id)anObject;

- (void)removeAllObjects;

- (void)unionSet:(NSSet *)otherSet;

- (void)minusSet:(NSSet *)otherSet;

- (void)intersectSet:(NSSet *)otherSet;

 

NSDictionary

Hash table. Look up objects using a key to get a value.

Immutable. You cannot add or remove objects to it once it’s created.

Keys are objects which must implement.  Keys are usually NSString objects.

- (NSUInteger)hash & - (BOOL)isEqual:(NSObject *)obj

Important methods:

+ dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: (id)firstObject, ...;

- (int)count;

- (id)objectForKey:(id)key;

- (NSArray *)allKeys;

- (NSArray *)allValues;

 -----创建字典 -----

    //- (id) initWithObjectsAndKeys;

    //NSDictionary *dictionary = [[NSDictionary alloc] initWithObjectsAndKeys:@"One",@"1",@"Two",@"2",@"Three",@"3",nil];
    NSString *string = [dictionary objectForKey:@"One"];
    NSLog(@"string:%@",string);
    NSLog(@"dictionary:%@",dictionary);
    [dictionary release];

NSMutableDictionary

Mutable version of NSDictionary.

+ (NSMutableDictionary *)dictionary;

- (void)setObject:(id)anObject forKey:(id)key;

- (void)removeObjectForKey:(id)key;

- (void)removeAllObjects;

- (void)addEntriesFromDictionary:(NSDictionary *)otherDictionary;

 -----创建可变字典 -----   

//创建

    NSMutableDictionary *dictionary = [NSMutableDictionary dictionary]; 

//添加字典

    [dictionary setObject:@"One" forKey:@"1"];

    [dictionary setObject:@"Two" forKey:@"2"];

    [dictionary setObject:@"Three" forKey:@"3"];

    [dictionary setObject:@"Four" forKey:@"4"];

    NSLog(@"dictionary:%@",dictionary);

//删除指定的字典

    [dictionary removeObjectForKey:@"3"];

    NSLog(@"dictionary:%@",dictionary);

原文:http://www.cnblogs.com/wangzh1225/p/3512281.html

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